Indian Council and Medical Research (ICMR) Guidelines for Sperm Donation

sperm donation

Sperm donation is a method in which a man donates sperm via semen, the fluid released during ejaculation to help infertile couples and individuals to become parents of healthy baby. Donor sperm can be used either for intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization.

Donor sperm is often used by:

  • A couple experiencing male infertility (little or no sperm, produces unhealthy sperm, male suffering from some genetic disease and vasectomy)
  • A single woman who want to be mother.

Donor sperm may be obtained at a sperm bank or fertility clinic. Sperm banks or clinics may be subjected to state or professional regulations, including restrictions on donor anonymity and the number of offspring that may be produced, and there may be other legal protections of the rights and responsibilities of both recipient and donor. Some sperm banks, either by choice or regulation, limit the amount of information available to potential recipients.A desire to obtain more information on donors, is one reason why recipients may choose to use a known donor or private donation. However, conception is achieved, the nature and course of the pregnancy will be the same as one achieved by sexual intercourse, and the male donor will be the biological father of any child born from his donations.

Before starting the infertility treatment, infertility experts evaluate ethical, legal, mental and emotional aspects of utilizing donor sperm.They also help to make couples mentally and emotionally strong enough to hassles free fertility treatment.

Indian Council and Medical Research directs the following requirements to become sperm donor:

  • Donor age must not be below 21 or above 45 years.
  • Donor blood group and Rh status must be determined and placed on record.
  • Donor must be free from HIV, Hepatitis B/C, Infections, Hypertension, Diabetes, STD and common genetic disorders such as Thalassemia.
  • Donor semen analysis of the individual must be carried out using a semen analyzer according to WHO method.
  • Other relevant information of the donor, such as height, weight, age, educational qualifications, profession, color of the skin and the eyes, record to major diseases including any psychiatric disorder and the family background in respect of history of any familial disorder, must be recorded in an appropriate Performa.

Apart from sperm donor guidelines, ICMR also recommends other screening guidelines for sperm donation (PDF):

  • To keep all information about sperm donors, recipients and couples confidential and secure.
  • Use of sperm donated by relative or a known friend of either the wife or the husband shall not be permitted.
  • It will be the responsibility of the clinic to obtain sperm from appropriate bank.

Sperm should be donated only in government authorized sperm bank. After sperm donation and screening process sperm either frozen in liquid nitrogen for future use in bank till 180 days or used by infertility clinics for treatment.

Higher success rate getting pregnant by donor sperm reported in women, who have no infertility problems, are under 35 years old. Lower success rates are reported where there is a female factor (ovulation problem, endometriosis, DES, etc.) or the women is over 35.

Surrogacy: Moral and Ethical View

Dr. Shivani Sachdev Gour, who runs a surrogacy clinic in Delhi. CBS News
Dr. Shivani Sachdev Gour, who runs a surrogacy clinic in Delhi / CBS News

Dr Shivani Sachdev Gour Explains, why surrogacy is ethically and morally correct?

Surrogate parenthood is an emotionally charged topic that both reflects and has implications for our concepts of parenthood and family. Surrogacy is a promising treatment for infertility. It can potentially solve many intolerable difficulties that the infertile couples and their families face.

There are various views regarding Surrogacy. Some criticize it as morally and ethically incorrect; while some explains it an honorable method that based on the unselfish belief of doing good to others, where one woman helping another woman to conceive.

Surrogacy Types and Comparison

There are various aspects that make surrogacy ethically correct and morally transparent:

  1. Helping an Infertile Couple

In this universe, the most amazing feeling for a couple it to having their own baby. But for some couples having this feeling is not that easy because of infertility. Through Surrogacy they can achieve that pleasure of parenthood. So, there is nothing unethical in helping a couple to reach that pleasure and Surrogate mother does that selflessly.

  1. Features for Surrogate Mother in Legal Contract

Becoming a Surrogate mother is not just a job but involves a great responsibility. Though no money can compensate Surrogate mothers’ emotions and boding with child that she carries in her womb for nine months. Still, the legal contract involved in this process, has many beneficiary clauses for surrogate mother.

A legal contract describes following features in favour of a surrogate mother.

  • Surrogate mother gets financial aid in response of her deed.
  • Surrogate mother gets a full healthy diet and environment during pregnancy and prenatal period.
  • Surrogate gets proper health monitoring during pregnancy and after delivery.
  • All her expenses during pregnancy and in later care are managed by the intended parents.

There is nothing morally wrong towards a surrogate mother if all the above points are followed properly.

  1. Helping Surrogate Mother Financially

A lady who carries a child in behalf of another woman is called a surrogate mother. A surrogate mother offers her physical services and time in response of money that she may require for an important deed. So, helping a surrogate mother financially is not anyway ethically wrong in response of her services.

  1. Ownership of Intended Parents on Child

Sometimes it is also observed that the process of surrogacy involving in-vitro fertilization results in birth of triplets or quadruplets. This may harm the interest of the child, but a proper legal agreement contains a clause that all the number of children through surrogacy is a responsibility of intended parents only. This feature eliminates burden of responsibility from surrogate mother and describes ownership of intended parents on born children, no matter if these are twins or triplets.

Why Surrogacy is Getting Popular These Days?

Surrogacy: Cost Overview

Surrogacy Cost Overview

Surrogacy is one of the most viable options for people who cannot conceive naturally. Although it is a complex process but considered to be most promising for infertile couples who need to have their own genetic baby. Surrogacy is a process in which a woman carries a child in his womb on behalf of another couple.

Surrogacy is not a standalone treatment; it is a series of steps combined to make a complete process. Each step of surrogacy process involves some expenses.The actual cost of surrogacy process varies country to country. A detailed analysis and payment schedule for surrogacy process is explained below.

  1. Expenses in Diagnostic Process

Prior to opting surrogacy as an option to fulfill a dream of parenthood, consulting a doctor is must. From counseling of intended parents to surrogate’s health tests are done under the supervision of medical practitioners. Some certain diagnostic tests are done related to the gynaecological, physical as well as the psychological status of the intended couples. Pelvic ultrasound of surrogate, a semen analysis for the man and combined couple consultation needs a certain cost that varies around the world.

  1. Expenses in Finding a Surrogate Mother

In a process of surrogacy, intended parents need to search for the surrogate mother who will bear their child for the next nine months. Nowadays, a surrogacy centres or agencies help couples to find a surrogate mother. Surrogacy centers or agencies help to select a suitable surrogate according to their profiles, medical evaluations, physiological test and legal background check. This whole process done by agency urges certain cost for helping intended parents.

Also, most surrogates are compensated by intended parents for their time, energy and sacrifices they make throughout the pregnancy.

  1. Cost involved in Legal Documentation

A clear legal document must keep intact between intended parents and surrogate mother to avoid any dispute in future. Various countries have their own laws for surrogacy. In some countries, laws are so complex to understand without any legal aid. Legal aid involves cost involving fees of legal expert, cost of registration process and expenses in legal documentation.

  1. Expenses in IVF Process

IVF (In-vitro Fertilization) process is widely used for eggs implantation. In addition to the fees of IVF specialist, the following cost involves in IVF process.

  • Anaesthetist fees.
  • Operating theatre & recovery room charges.
  • Laboratory charges (ICSI/IMSI, Blastocyst culture) and cost involved in freezing and storage of embryos for 90 days.
  • Cost for embryo thawing (if necessary) and assisted hatching.
  • Cost involved in embryo transfer in uterus of surrogate.
  1. Expenses in Surrogate Care and Delivery

A routine of regular check-ups and ultrasound of the surrogate mother is required time to time. The health of baby depends on proper growth of the foetus and lifestyle of the surrogate mother during the pregnancy tenure. To create a healthy lifestyle for surrogate, intended parents need to spend money on healthy diet, some stress relief sessions such as concealing, yoga and exercise, and timely check-up of surrogate.

The final expense covers the cost of the delivery of the baby and the post-natal care of the surrogate.