What is High-Risk Pregnancy?

A high risk pregnancy is one that requires specialized extra care from specially trained providers in order to have a healthy pregnancy and baby. It can threaten the life or health of the mother or her child. This is often arises, if you suffer from a chronic illness or have other factors and conditions that convert your pregnancy in the high risk category. Several other factors can make a pregnancy high risk, for example mother’s age and lifestyle, existing health conditions of the mother and some significant health issues that occurred before or during pregnancy. Some pregnancies become high risk as they grow, while for a variety of reasons, some women are at increased risk for risky pregnancy even before they get pregnant. It is likely that problems may prevail with both mother and the baby during the pregnancy, birth process or even after the delivery of the child. For both the mother and the baby, the problems can be minor or life threatening in severity, which require additional monitoring and care from your doctor. 

Risk factors for a high-risk pregnancy

Sometimes a high-risk pregnancy is the result of a medical condition present before pregnancy. Specific factors that might contribute to a high-risk pregnancy include:

Existing health conditions: For example high blood pressure, being HIV-positive or diabetes.

Obesity and overweight: Most people already familiar with the facts that obesity increases the risk for high blood pressure or gestational diabetes. Additionally it can also increase the risk of cesarean delivery, preeclampsia, stillbirth or neural tube defects. Researchers have suggested that obesity can raise infants’ risk of having heart problems at birth by 15%.

Multiple pregnancies: If a women carrying more than one fetus – twins or higher-order multiples, the risk of complications will be high as compared with single pregnancy. Common complications include preterm birth, premature labor and and preeclampsia. It is recorded that more than one-half of all twins and 93 percent of triplets are born at less than 37 weeks’ gestation.

Young or old age of mother: Pregnancy in teens and women with age more than 35 years older increases the risk for gestational high blood pressure or preeclampsia.

Medical history:  A history of diabetes, heart disorders, and chronic hypertension, breathing problems such as poorly controlled asthma, infections, and blood-clotting disorders such as deep vein thrombosis can considerably enhance pregnancy risks.

Poor lifestyle: Smoking cigarettes, taking illegal drugs and drinking alcohol can put a pregnancy at high risk.

Surgical history: A history of surgery on your uterus including, multiple abdominal surgeries, multiple C-sections or surgery for uterine tumors (fibroids) can increase chances for pregnancy risks.

Pregnancy complications: Various health complications that develop during pregnancy can also increase pose risks. For examples an abnormal placenta position, Rh (rhesus) sensitization and fetal growth less than the 10th percentile for gestational age.

Women with high-risk pregnancies should require extra care from a special team of health care providers to ensure the best possible pregnancy results. Some Important Tests before Planning a Pregnancy after Miscarriage

 

Few Things Need to Know Before Eggs Freezing

Age is the major risk factor for health problems like the likelihood of chromosomal abnormalities in women. The risk of birth defects or disorders and the risk of miscarriage makes the things difficult for conceiving. Egg freezing is an alternate way to stop the natural biological clock of the body, expand reproductive chances and preserve the younger and possibly healthier eggs. Eggs freezing have become an increasingly attractive option for many women looking to extend their childbearing years. But few things need to know before going for eggs freezing:

Exact meaning of egg freezing: The process of egg-freezing or oocyte cryopreservation in medical language, involved stimulation of the ovaries with hormones to produce multiple eggs, the retrieved eggs are then sent to the lab where they are frozen unfertilized and stored to be thawed at a later date and combined with sperm in a lab and implanted in the uterus for further in vitro fertilization process.

Procedure of egg freezing: The process of retrieving eggs for further eggs freezing is similar to the first phase of in-vitro fertilization (IVF). The doctor will apply anesthesia and vaginal wall be a punctured from a needle. There is a possible risk for infection but the will reduce as far as surgical procedures move forward. To stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple eggs, round of hormone injections given to the woman. For regular monitoring of ovaries by vaginal ultrasound, the stage involves multiple visits to the doctor, about five times in the interval of 10 days. The eggs are retrieved after a week of hormone treatments.The complete egg retrieval process takes about 10 minutes and is done under mild sedation or anesthesia. The doctor guides a needle through the vagina to the ovarian follicle which contains the eggs using an ultrasound. A suction device installed at the end of the needle removes the eggs from the follicles. Retrieving the eggs from ovary is technically similar to that of from getting blood drawn from the body where a needle goes into the ovary the eggs taken out gently.

Associate Risk of Egg Freezing : The complete surgical procedure is almost safe, but risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome or OHSS which create some heath related issues in some women may develop by the hormone shots. That mostly happens when a woman responds too aggressively to the hormones and the ovaries become painful and swollen. But in rare, OHSS increases the risk of blood clots and kidney failure that can be fatal.

Chances of having a baby with my freezing eggs: According to a survey conducted by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the chance that a single frozen egg will successfully lead to a pregnancy is about 12 percent.  For this reason, it is often recommended to have coupled dozen eggs frozen to maximize the success rate for having baby in later life. Although the success will directly depend on a number of factors like age of woman and the quality of the sperm of her partner.

Risks Associated with In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

In-vitro fertilization (IVF) is a complex medical treatment used to treat infertility or genetic problems and help with the conception of a child. It is a type of assisted reproduction procedure in which a woman’s eggs and a man’s sperm are combined outside of the woman’s body in a laboratory dish. Then one or more fertilized eggs (embryos) directly transferred into the woman’s uterus. Pregnancy happens if any of the embryos implant in the uterine lining. In fact, serious health issues from IVF procedures and medicines are rare. However, there are some risks associated with this all medical treatments. The most common risks are discussed below.

Multiple pregnancies: If more than one embryo is implanted in your uterus, there is an increase risk of multiple pregnancies. There is a high risk of early labor and low birth weight if a pregnancy with multiple fetuses occurred, but there is a low risk if pregnancy occurred with a single fetus.

Psychological stress: IVF involves a significant financial, physical and emotional commitment on the part of a couple, specially if in vitro fertilization (IVF) is unsuccessful psychological stress and emotional problems are common. Support from family and friends or counselors may help the couple through the ups and downs of infertility treatment.

Very expensive:  IVF Procedure is expensive and most of the insurance companies do not provide coverage for fertility treatment. The cost for a single IVF cycle can cost from at least $12,000-$18,000.

Low birth weight and premature delivery:  It is suggested that use of IVF significantly increases the risk that a baby will be low birth weight or born early as expected.

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: During the IVF procedure, to induce ovulation many injectable fertility drugs such as human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) are used which can cause ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Signs and symptoms of this treatment typically last a week and include pain, bloating, mild abdominal pain nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. In many pregnant women, the symptoms might last several weeks. There is a possibility to develop a more-severe form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome that can increase the chances of shortness of breath or rapid weight gain.

Miscarriage: The rate of miscarriage is about 15 to 25 percent for women who conceive using IVF with fresh embryos is similar to that of women who conceive naturally, but this rate generally increases with maternal age. The risk of miscarriage increases with the use of frozen embryos during IVF procedure.

Egg-retrieval procedure complications: Use of an aspirating needle to collect eggs during IVF could possibly cause infection or damage to the bowel, bladder or a blood vessel or bleeding. If general anesthesia has been used, high risks will increase with the mother.

Birth defects: No matter how the child is conceived, the age of the mother is the main risk factor in the development of birth defects in the baby. More research is required to evaluate whether babies conceived using IVF might involved in increased risk of certain birth defects. Some experts suggest that the use of IVF does not increase the risk of having a baby with birth defects.

What is In-Vitro Fertilization or IVF TECHNOLOGY?

In-Vitro Fertilization or IVF is an assisted reproductive technology (ART). IVF process required the fertilization by extracting eggs retrieving a sperm sample and then manually combining the egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. The embryo or embryos are then transferred to the uterus after the combination. Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) are other forms of ART.IVF is one of the effective way for treating infertility caused by ovarian disorders, premature ovarian failures or fibroids or blocked fallopian tubes in women and male factor fertility caused by low sperm count.It is also an effective treatment for women who have had their fallopian tubes removes or any other unexplained infertility and male with any genetic disorder.The successful rate for treating infertility with IVF mainly depends on number of factors like causes of infertility and of course, reproductive history, maternal age and lifestyle factors. But in reality, IVF is considered to be an effective treatment for infertility in childless couples.                

Process of IVF and embryo transfer

  • For stimulating egg production fertility medications are recommended. Multiple eggs may be desired because some eggs will fail to develop or fertilize after retrieval. A trans-vaginal ultrasound has been adopted to examine the ovaries, and blood test samples are collected to check hormone levels.
  • With the help of a minor surgical procedure eggs are retrieved through ultrasound imaging to guide a hollow needle through the pelvic cavity to successfully remove the eggs. Medication is advised to reduce and remove further potential discomfort.
  • A sample of sperm collected from male, which will be used for combining with the eggs.
  • The sperm and eggs are mixed together and collected in a laboratory dish to encourage fertilization and this process is known as insemination. The process of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be used in some situation where there is a lower probability of fertilization. During this procedure, a single sperm from male is injected directly into the egg in an attempt to achieve successful fertilization.
  • Three to five days after the egg retrieval and fertilization the embryos are usually transferred into the woman’s uterus. A small tube or catheter is inserted into the uterus to transfer the embryos. This procedure is free from any sort of pain for most women, although women may experience mild cramping. If the procedure is successful, the implantation normally occurs around six to ten days after egg retrieval.

Side effect of IVF

After the process of IVF most women can start doing normal activities in the following day itself. Some side effects after IVF process include passage of small amounts of fluid in women after the procedure.

The produced fluid can be clear or slightly colored with blood. Bloating and mild cramping can also considered as side effect. Some women also experienced tender at breasts and constipation after the procedure as side effects. Some potential problems like blood in the urine, pelvic pain and fever over 100.5°F and heavy vaginal bleeding should be thoroughly checked by doctor immediately. The side effects of fertility medications may include headaches, abdominal pain, hot flashes and abdominal bloating mood swings or hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS).

Responsibilities of Surrogate Mother

A surrogate choose surrogacy to give the most incredible gift to another family. Every surrogate’s journey is different from each other and there are many responsibilities of a surrogate mother. Here are some important points, a surrogate keeps in her mind.

Taking Care of Her Health: First and primarily, health is essential for a surrogacy process. A surrogate need to eat healthy and nutritious foods, do exercise, and get plenty of rest throughout the pregnancy. There are many resources dedicated to health and wellness during pregnancy and doctors or surrogacy specialist in India can also provide with additional information, resources and advice to surrogate. The health of new born baby depends on surrogate’s health.

Keep in Touch with Surrogacy Expert: Surrogacy experts are there to be a resource for information and support. Thus, a surrogate must keep them informed throughout the pregnancy and never hesitate to reach out with any questions or concerns

Capturing Every Moments as A Documents: Many intended parents create a baby book to help them tell their child’s story. A surrogate mother is an important part of that story, so she should take plenty of pictures throughout the pregnancy to capture life with family and document the progress. She may also keep a journal, take notes or write a letter to the baby to give the intended parents the option of including the story from your perspective, as well.

Involving with Intended Parents: Intended parents are generally keen and excited to know how a surrogate mother is feeling. They want to receive any and all updates from surrogate about the pregnancy. A surrogate mother should involve them in the pregnancy as much as she is comfortable.

How A Surrogate Can Help Prepare the Baby to Go Home with His or Her Parents?

Some tips to help prepare the baby for the emotional transfer during pregnancy are as follows:

  • Introduce the baby to the intended parents’ voices: Babies’ sense of hearing plays a large role in prenatal bonding, play recordings of the intended parents talking or reading books to the baby so he or she can get used to their voices.
  • Familiarize the baby with the sounds of home: Even before he or she is born, a surrogate need to familiarize baby with home sound or music.She can play songs, artists and genres that the intended parents enjoy so that baby can recognize and be comforted by the music after birth.
  • Afford a transitional element: The baby also begins to recognize surrogate mother’s scent before birth. To make baby comfortable with that scent, even after a transition to his/her new family, surrogate mother can sleep with a blanket or a stuffed toy and send it to the new home with the baby.

A surrogate mother’s final goal is to prepare the baby in favour of his or her intended parents. It is a big task, but above simple performances can make all the difference and help confirm that the surrogacy is a success for everyone involved.

Surrogacy: Moral and Ethical View

Irregular Menstrual Cycles and Female Infertility

Most women have regular cycles that range from 26 days to 32 days; where 28 days is the most common length. Some mild fluctuations in your cycle may occur, but generally, a regular cycle means a greater likelihood of getting pregnant through natural means. Problems with your cycle could result in various fertility issues.

Nowadays the fertility centres offer a whole host of infertility treatments designed to address female fertility problems. Following are some issues with female infertility, and some advice on dealing with irregular menstrual cycles.

Causes of Irregular Periods

Some possible causes of irregular menstrual cycles include:

  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS): This endocrine disorder that affects 8 percent of women can throw off hormone levels, resulting in irregular periods and anovulation.
  • Thyroid Imbalance: An overactive or underachieve thyroid gland means your hormone levels could be off, impacting your menstrual cycle.
  • Hyperprolactinemia: Prolactin is the hormone that stimulates milk production for breast feeding. Too much prolactin in your system can alter your regular cycle.
  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI): Also known as premature ovarian failure (POF), POI is associated with a total lack of periods. This may result in menopause symptoms before the age of 40.
  • Obesity and Being Underweight: Obesity and being excessively underweight can both lead to hormone problems. Achieving a more ideal weight rather than being one of the two extremes can help bring hormone levels back to normal.

Tracking Your Cycle

If you are having trouble getting pregnant, consider tracking your cycle. Even if your periods are irregular, tracking your menstrual cycle will give you a good idea of what you are going through and what patterns keep repeating. There are many helpful online resources and apps that can make charting your period easier.After a few months, this data will be helpful to you, and it can also help your general practitioner or a fertility specialist when discussing issues related to fertility.

Discussing Issues with a Fertility Specialist

A fertility specialist will be able to go over your various concerns when it comes to your irregular menstrual cycles and difficulties become pregnant. During an exam. Today, gynecologists are able to discuss current medical concerns as well as long-term health issues that may be impacting your cycle. Charting your cycle can help with this process.

Possible Treatments for Irregular Periods

The treatments for irregular periods can vary a great deal. For issues with weight, simply losing weight or gaining weight can help keep your cycle more regular. Fertility drugs and medical procedures could be recommended to address hormonal imbalances. Sometimes a full fertility treatment such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or the services of an egg donor might be most ideal.

Contact to fertility specialist Dr. Shivani Sachdev Gour

For more information about overcoming infertility and improving your chances off starting a family, contact fertility specialists Dr Shivani Sachdev Gour in SCI International Hospital, Greater Kailash Part 1, Kailash Colony, Noida Sector 63, Delhi.

Female Infertility - Simple Tips to Increase It

Indian Council and Medical Research (ICMR) Guidelines for Sperm Donation

sperm donation

Sperm donation is a method in which a man donates sperm via semen, the fluid released during ejaculation to help infertile couples and individuals to become parents of healthy baby. Donor sperm can be used either for intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization.

Donor sperm is often used by:

  • A couple experiencing male infertility (little or no sperm, produces unhealthy sperm, male suffering from some genetic disease and vasectomy)
  • A single woman who want to be mother.

Donor sperm may be obtained at a sperm bank or fertility clinic. Sperm banks or clinics may be subjected to state or professional regulations, including restrictions on donor anonymity and the number of offspring that may be produced, and there may be other legal protections of the rights and responsibilities of both recipient and donor. Some sperm banks, either by choice or regulation, limit the amount of information available to potential recipients.A desire to obtain more information on donors, is one reason why recipients may choose to use a known donor or private donation. However, conception is achieved, the nature and course of the pregnancy will be the same as one achieved by sexual intercourse, and the male donor will be the biological father of any child born from his donations.

Before starting the infertility treatment, infertility experts evaluate ethical, legal, mental and emotional aspects of utilizing donor sperm.They also help to make couples mentally and emotionally strong enough to hassles free fertility treatment.

Indian Council and Medical Research directs the following requirements to become sperm donor:

  • Donor age must not be below 21 or above 45 years.
  • Donor blood group and Rh status must be determined and placed on record.
  • Donor must be free from HIV, Hepatitis B/C, Infections, Hypertension, Diabetes, STD and common genetic disorders such as Thalassemia.
  • Donor semen analysis of the individual must be carried out using a semen analyzer according to WHO method.
  • Other relevant information of the donor, such as height, weight, age, educational qualifications, profession, color of the skin and the eyes, record to major diseases including any psychiatric disorder and the family background in respect of history of any familial disorder, must be recorded in an appropriate Performa.

Apart from sperm donor guidelines, ICMR also recommends other screening guidelines for sperm donation (PDF):

  • To keep all information about sperm donors, recipients and couples confidential and secure.
  • Use of sperm donated by relative or a known friend of either the wife or the husband shall not be permitted.
  • It will be the responsibility of the clinic to obtain sperm from appropriate bank.

Sperm should be donated only in government authorized sperm bank. After sperm donation and screening process sperm either frozen in liquid nitrogen for future use in bank till 180 days or used by infertility clinics for treatment.

Higher success rate getting pregnant by donor sperm reported in women, who have no infertility problems, are under 35 years old. Lower success rates are reported where there is a female factor (ovulation problem, endometriosis, DES, etc.) or the women is over 35.

Surrogacy: Moral and Ethical View

Dr. Shivani Sachdev Gour, who runs a surrogacy clinic in Delhi. CBS News
Dr. Shivani Sachdev Gour, who runs a surrogacy clinic in Delhi / CBS News

Dr Shivani Sachdev Gour Explains, why surrogacy is ethically and morally correct?

Surrogate parenthood is an emotionally charged topic that both reflects and has implications for our concepts of parenthood and family. Surrogacy is a promising treatment for infertility. It can potentially solve many intolerable difficulties that the infertile couples and their families face.

There are various views regarding Surrogacy. Some criticize it as morally and ethically incorrect; while some explains it an honorable method that based on the unselfish belief of doing good to others, where one woman helping another woman to conceive.

Surrogacy Types and Comparison

There are various aspects that make surrogacy ethically correct and morally transparent:

  1. Helping an Infertile Couple

In this universe, the most amazing feeling for a couple it to having their own baby. But for some couples having this feeling is not that easy because of infertility. Through Surrogacy they can achieve that pleasure of parenthood. So, there is nothing unethical in helping a couple to reach that pleasure and Surrogate mother does that selflessly.

  1. Features for Surrogate Mother in Legal Contract

Becoming a Surrogate mother is not just a job but involves a great responsibility. Though no money can compensate Surrogate mothers’ emotions and boding with child that she carries in her womb for nine months. Still, the legal contract involved in this process, has many beneficiary clauses for surrogate mother.

A legal contract describes following features in favour of a surrogate mother.

  • Surrogate mother gets financial aid in response of her deed.
  • Surrogate mother gets a full healthy diet and environment during pregnancy and prenatal period.
  • Surrogate gets proper health monitoring during pregnancy and after delivery.
  • All her expenses during pregnancy and in later care are managed by the intended parents.

There is nothing morally wrong towards a surrogate mother if all the above points are followed properly.

  1. Helping Surrogate Mother Financially

A lady who carries a child in behalf of another woman is called a surrogate mother. A surrogate mother offers her physical services and time in response of money that she may require for an important deed. So, helping a surrogate mother financially is not anyway ethically wrong in response of her services.

  1. Ownership of Intended Parents on Child

Sometimes it is also observed that the process of surrogacy involving in-vitro fertilization results in birth of triplets or quadruplets. This may harm the interest of the child, but a proper legal agreement contains a clause that all the number of children through surrogacy is a responsibility of intended parents only. This feature eliminates burden of responsibility from surrogate mother and describes ownership of intended parents on born children, no matter if these are twins or triplets.

Why Surrogacy is Getting Popular These Days?

Surrogacy: Cost Overview

Surrogacy Cost Overview

Surrogacy is one of the most viable options for people who cannot conceive naturally. Although it is a complex process but considered to be most promising for infertile couples who need to have their own genetic baby. Surrogacy is a process in which a woman carries a child in his womb on behalf of another couple.

Surrogacy is not a standalone treatment; it is a series of steps combined to make a complete process. Each step of surrogacy process involves some expenses.The actual cost of surrogacy process varies country to country. A detailed analysis and payment schedule for surrogacy process is explained below.

  1. Expenses in Diagnostic Process

Prior to opting surrogacy as an option to fulfill a dream of parenthood, consulting a doctor is must. From counseling of intended parents to surrogate’s health tests are done under the supervision of medical practitioners. Some certain diagnostic tests are done related to the gynaecological, physical as well as the psychological status of the intended couples. Pelvic ultrasound of surrogate, a semen analysis for the man and combined couple consultation needs a certain cost that varies around the world.

  1. Expenses in Finding a Surrogate Mother

In a process of surrogacy, intended parents need to search for the surrogate mother who will bear their child for the next nine months. Nowadays, a surrogacy centres or agencies help couples to find a surrogate mother. Surrogacy centers or agencies help to select a suitable surrogate according to their profiles, medical evaluations, physiological test and legal background check. This whole process done by agency urges certain cost for helping intended parents.

Also, most surrogates are compensated by intended parents for their time, energy and sacrifices they make throughout the pregnancy.

  1. Cost involved in Legal Documentation

A clear legal document must keep intact between intended parents and surrogate mother to avoid any dispute in future. Various countries have their own laws for surrogacy. In some countries, laws are so complex to understand without any legal aid. Legal aid involves cost involving fees of legal expert, cost of registration process and expenses in legal documentation.

  1. Expenses in IVF Process

IVF (In-vitro Fertilization) process is widely used for eggs implantation. In addition to the fees of IVF specialist, the following cost involves in IVF process.

  • Anaesthetist fees.
  • Operating theatre & recovery room charges.
  • Laboratory charges (ICSI/IMSI, Blastocyst culture) and cost involved in freezing and storage of embryos for 90 days.
  • Cost for embryo thawing (if necessary) and assisted hatching.
  • Cost involved in embryo transfer in uterus of surrogate.
  1. Expenses in Surrogate Care and Delivery

A routine of regular check-ups and ultrasound of the surrogate mother is required time to time. The health of baby depends on proper growth of the foetus and lifestyle of the surrogate mother during the pregnancy tenure. To create a healthy lifestyle for surrogate, intended parents need to spend money on healthy diet, some stress relief sessions such as concealing, yoga and exercise, and timely check-up of surrogate.

The final expense covers the cost of the delivery of the baby and the post-natal care of the surrogate.

Fertility Test for Men

Male infertility is the situation where reproductive problems have been found in the male. Reproduction is a simple and natural experience for most couples. However, for some couples it is very difficult to conceive. A man’s fertility generally relies on the quantity and quality of his sperm. If the number of sperms a man ejaculates is low or the sperm is of a poor quality, it will difficult for him to cause a pregnancy. Males born with hormonal problems or undescended testes can become infertile. Some men, who have both the testes but are not able to produce sperm, also suffer from infertility, Moreover, stress can cause decreased libido and the couple can end up in having infertility.

 Some causes recognized  of infertility in male are following:

  • Low numbers and quality of sperm production.
  • Obstruction of sperm transport
  • Sexual problems
  • Hormonal problems
  • Sperm antibodies

Fertility Test for Men

In all cases of infertility, one-third of males are found infertile. Couples, who are wishing to have their own baby, also need to consult a doctor for treatment of infertility in the male partner. For treatment of male infertility, doctors diagnose patient using different fertility tests. Some important fertility tests for men are following:

  • Semen Analysis: Semen analysis forms the basis of important decisions concerning appropriate treatment for male infertility. Semen analysis should be performed in a laboratory adhering to national quality control standards. Sperm is collected into a specimen jar and presented to a lab technician who examines the sperm under a microscope in order to evaluate the count, shape, appearance, and mobility of the sperm.
  • Sperm Agglutination:Sperm agglutination refers to the percentage of sperm stuck together in the provided sample. Sperm can stick together at the head, tail or head-to-tail. Sperms are not supposed to stick together, they cannot swim that way. Sperms are supposed to be free moving, straight swimming with a healthy shape.
  • Sperm Penetration Assay: A laboratory test utilizing hamster eggs to evaluate a sperm’s capability of penetrating the egg. This test is rarely used. The test is scored by calculation of the percentage of ova that are penetrated or the average number of sperm penetrations per ovum. The sperm penetration assay identifies those couples that will have a high likelihood of success with in-vitro fertilization.
  • Vasography: An x-ray exam is used to determine if there is blockage or leakage of sperm in the vas deferens to avoid performing an extra operation, vasography is encouraged to be done at the time of correction of the obstruction.
  • Ultrasonography: This assessment used to detect damage or blockages in the male reproductive tract, including the prostate, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts. It plays an important role for evaluation of pathologic conditions of the testes.

Acrosome Reaction: Laboratory test that helps to determine if sperm heads are able to go through the chemical changes necessary to dissolve an egg’s tough outer shell. The Acrosome Reaction is the reaction that occurs in the acrosome of the sperm as it approaches the egg.