Blood pressure is the force of blood that pushes against the walls of your arteries each time the heart contracts to pump the blood through each parts of the body. Arteries are blood vessels that transport blood from your heart to other parts of the body. If the pressure in your arteries becomes too high, this condition is known as have high blood pressure or hypertension. Hypertensioncan lead to health problems and pose extra pressure on your kidneys and heart, however in most cases hypertension is preventable and treatable. Uncontrolled or severe hypertension during pregnancy when not appropriately treated can cause health risk for you and your fetus. Complications arise from high blood pressure in pregnancy have become more common over the years.Some women have high blood pressure before they get pregnant, others may have high blood pressure for the first time during their pregnancy. Approximately 8 percent of women have some kind of high blood pressure during pregnancy. There are four types of high blood pressure in pregnant women:
- Chronic hypertension: Chronic hypertension is high blood (over 140/90) pressure that develops before the 20th week of pregnancy or is present much before the woman becomes pregnant or continue to have it after delivery. High blood pressure usually doesn’t have symptoms so it is possible that a woman has high blood pressure for a long time before she gets pregnant, but she doesn’t aware about it until she has first prenatal check-up. Chronic hypertension usually treated with blood pressure medication.
- Gestational Hypertension: Gestational Hypertension is a high blood pressure that develops after week 20 in pregnancy without the presence of protein in the urine or other changes in liver function.This form of high blood pressure is typically temporary and normally to go away after delivery.However, it can increase the risk of developing high blood pressure later in women life.In some cases, the blood pressure will remain high after the delivery, which results in chronic hypertension. Some women with gestational hypertension finally develop preeclampsia in her later age.
- Preeclampsia: Preeclampsia is a high blood pressure condition when a pregnant woman has high blood pressure usually after 20 weeks of pregnancy or after giving birth. It is a serious condition that can associate with signs of damage to other organ systems, including liver, kidneys, blood or brain. Untreated preeclampsia can lead to serious health problems for both mother and baby and can develops seizures (eclampsia). Previously, it was diagnosed only if a pregnant woman had protein in her urine and high blood pressure but now it’s quite possible to have preeclampsia without having protein in the urine. Signs and symptoms of preeclampsia include high blood pressure, excessive swelling of the face and hands, weight gain due to fluid retention, blurred vision, severe headaches, sensitivity to light, dizziness, shortness of breath, nausea and having protein in the urine.
- Chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia: This health complication occurs in women with chronic hypertension before pregnancy. In this condition women develop deterioration high blood pressure and protein in the urineduring pregnancy.